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Bowling (from English to bowling - "to roll") is a sports game, the essence of which is to knock down 10 pins (set in the form of a triangle) by rolling balls along a special track. The bowling game, from which bowling originated, has enjoyed consistently high popularity among many peoples of the world for thousands of years.

Bowling balls are found in the tomb of an Egyptian pharaoh who lived around 5200 BC; the ancient Polynesians also adored the game of bowling (and on the tracks, the length of which was 18,228 meters - as in modern bowling). And in Germany in the IV century, this game was part of a religious ceremony - the holy fathers, knocking down a vertically installed kegel (a type of weapon) with a ball, "fought" against paganism. In addition, this fun allowed to determine the character of a person. The player's accuracy spoke of his complaisance, a mistake served as a good reason for imposing a penance (punishment for sin) on a loser.

There were times when the game of bowling was forbidden - the kings of Britain Edward II and Richard II issued special decrees forbidding the subjects of the most august monarchs to waste time playing bowling pins. According to the rulers, the people should be engaged in more important matters that bring profit to the state. However, these restrictions by no means led to the decline and oblivion of the favorite fun of many people.

At the end of the 19th century, Germanic settlers somewhat transformed the old game, increasing the number of pins to 10. At the same time, standards for equipment (pins, tracks, balls) were set and uniform rules of the game were developed. In 1895, the American Bowling Congress was founded, which, among other rules, approved a ban on the participation of the fair sex in competitions. However, in 1916, the first Women's International Bowling Congress took place in St. Louis. And finally, at the end of the 30s of the XX century, equipment was created for the automatic setting of pins and return of balls.

Bowling myths

The rules of bowling were developed at the end of the 19th century, until that moment the game was played "haphazardly". This is not true. For the first time the standardization of the rules of bowling was undertaken by the English king Charles, who wanted to equalize the chances of the players. The next attempt was made in 1849 in Scotland, but only in 1895 at the American Bowling Congress a single set of rules was adopted, according to which all lanes must be 18.228 m long and 1.668 m wide and covered with a special compound for better ball glide. The game uses 10 identical numbered pins, the height of which is 38.1 cm and a round ball, the diameter of which is 68.58 cm, and the weight is 7.258 kg.

The first bowling balls were made from rubber. No, in the beginning bowling balls were made of iron wood and were very hard and heavy. Only in 1905 did the first rubber ball appear.

For the first time ever, the American Bowling Congress took place in New York. No, in New York on September 9, 1895, the first meeting of the American Bowling Congress took place in Beethoven Hall. And the first tournament took place in Chicago in 1901.

In 1963-1964. there has been a recession in the bowling industry, caused by the excessive number of bowling centers and the active development of other sports. Indeed, in the early 60s of the last century, the aforementioned recession took place. However, the reason for this process was different - the introduction of a low-porosity coating instead of the conventional varnished one. As a consequence, changes were made to the well-established practice of oiling the entire length and width of the track, which caused a lot of inconvenience to the players. And the ball on a low-porosity coating took up more oil, changing its properties by no means for the better. Therefore, many players, after unsuccessful attempts to prevent innovation, left the bowling alley.

Before the invention of automated ball feeding, players could use chalk to apply to the soles of their shoes if the approach zone became extremely slippery. Bowlers really used chalk and towels to keep their hands dry (there were no conditioners yet). However, the presence of chalk on the soles of sports shoes was considered a violation - a monetary fine was charged from the player.

The best results at all times were provided by brand new wooden pins. Completely erroneous opinion. The best results are obtained when the inflated side of the pins is flatter and flatter. And to achieve this effect, the pin should be used at least several hundred times.

The Women's International Bowling Congress was initiated by the American Bowling Congress. Bowling was considered an exclusively male sport, representatives of Congress were completely agreed with this state of affairs. It was only because St. Louis-based progressive entrepreneur and sports writer Dennis J. Swiney provided his bowling center in 1916 to 40 women players from 11 cities that the Women's Bowling Congress was formed.

The more the ball is twisted, the higher it is raised before the throw. In fact, much depends on where the main moments of the ball's motion are directed - translational and rotational. If their directions coincide, the ball will not spin. The greater the difference between the directions of translation and rotation of the ball, the more it scrolls.

To increase the speed of the ball, you should throw more sharply. Consequently, smoother movements provide the ball with less acceleration. There are special techniques to change the speed of the ball in bowling. For example, a decrease in speed is facilitated by approaching the foul line by 1-2 steps, as well as shorter steps when taking a run, a short swing. If you take a full step back from the usual takeoff point, the speed of the ball will increase.

If the ball hits the 6th pin, it will hit the 10th (for left-handers - the 4th affects the 7th) - which means there will be more chances of hitting the "strike". In fact, it is extremely rare that the recoil of the 6th pin can carry the 10th with it. Most often, the 6th pin bounces back, therefore, it does not affect the rest of the pins.

Over time, on old lacquered tracks, a depression forms, along which the ball rolls easily in the desired direction. This state of affairs takes place when it comes to a shellac coating, on which a "rut" to the pocket could indeed form. On the lacquered paths, over time, only a dark trace can form, but the depression does not appear. Of course, the internal characteristics of the tracks are different, but over time they do not change (for example, if you find that the ball is spinning more on one of the tracks, after a year, returning to the same track, you will see that nothing has changed).

Professional bowlers undergo drug testing before the game and are not allowed to drink alcohol. Indeed, the sports council has the right to conduct doping control, and not only before, but also during and after the competition. At the same time, for example, the consumption of alcoholic beverages or marijuana (possession and sale of which is a criminal offense) is not prohibited. In some cases, local injections of anesthetics are allowed, but the use of corticosteroids or beta-blockers is prohibited.

Success in the game can only be achieved through constant training. Of course, knowing the rules, mastering various techniques of the game, acquiring the necessary physical skills is extremely important. However, we should not forget that the successful performance of a bowler is also promoted by self-confidence, the ability to trust your own instincts and the absence of psychological pressure (most often formed by the player himself, striving to achieve maximum results). In addition, you should learn to take all your actions positively, turning successes and mistakes into the experience that every professional bowler needs.

A good player doesn't need competition. After all, it is competitions that are one of the main components of the training process, they make it possible to identify with maximum clarity the strengths and weaknesses of the player. During the competition, situations may arise that are completely impossible to reproduce in training. It is at these moments that the player can show the abilities, capabilities and skills that were previously "in reserve" and were never used - there was no need. In addition, it is very important that the athlete takes part in tournaments held in different cities and countries, competes with players demonstrating different tactics and strategies. Only in this case he gets the opportunity to reveal the whole range of his own practical skills.

An indicator of improper balance is the position of the legs. No, the main indicator of an incorrect balance is the player's head. Therefore, it is very important to analyze the position of the body, paying attention to the work of the shoulders and the position of the head (it should be tilted forward, and during the run and throw it should not move up and down or to the sides) and hips.

Bowling people sooner or later develop body imbalances. Indeed, there can be a difference between the development of the right and left half of the body. Moreover, this is expressed not only in the fact that, for example, right-handers have more developed trunk muscles on the left - there is an imbalance in the muscle structure of the wrist (strong flexor, weak extensor), hips (well-developed thigh muscles, tight flexor muscles, poorly developed hamstring ), elbow (strong biceps, weak triceps), etc. Therefore, during training, you should use the right and left hand alternately. Also, do not neglect aerobics, strength and relaxation exercises.

The swing (swing) must exactly match the hand move described in the textbook. Not necessary. Sometimes the best results are achieved by athletes whose technique is somewhat different from the canonical. However, some key points (whether there is a snatch at the top of the swing, whether the ball goes behind the back at this moment, whether the hand is bent, etc.) is still worth paying attention to. After all, if the player's hand at the top of the swing goes behind the back, the throw will be effective only if there is enough oil in the middle of the track. And if the swing is over the shoulder, the athlete has very little chance of success (although with dry edges of the track, this manner can be quite effective).

A bowling alley (except for the number of pins) does not differ from bowling. To an inexperienced observer, it may indeed seem that the bowling alley (from German kegelbahn - "road with pins"), widespread in Germany, is no different from bowling. However, there is still a difference.
Firstly, the bowling alley is not as rigidly standardized as bowling - the length of the lane can vary, and the number of throws in some variants can vary ("foul" - a game with one throw; "queen foul" - points are counted only when the player knocks down the queen - 5th pin; "n" - the number of throws is not limited, etc.).
Secondly, the player can set alternation and pattern (999 combinations) of pins. And the number of players is not so strictly limited (maximum twenty).
Thirdly, balls in a bowling alley do not have indentations for fingers, as in bowling, they are fixed by a hand grip and are smaller.

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